A stupid fight leads to serious consequences for one young man. He ends up getting picked up and slammed perfectly on his neck. You can hear it snap, and see how awkward it is as he lies on the ground. The saddest part is looking in his eyes after he realizes what just happened. Listen to them all cheer. Never allow yourself to get picked up in a brawl.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss) in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. About 1 in 50 people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with some form of paralysis, transient or permanent. The word comes from the Greek παράλυσις, “disabling of the nerves”, itself from παρά (para), “beside, by” and λύσις (lysis), “losing” and that from λύω (luō), “to lose”. A paralysis accompanied by involuntary tremors is usually called “palsy”
Paralysis is most often caused by damage in the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other major causes are stroke, trauma with nerve injury, poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and Guillain–Barré syndrome. Temporary paralysis occurs during REM sleep, and dysregulation of this system can lead to episodes of waking paralysis. Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis.
Pseudoparalysis (pseudo- meaning “false, not genuine”, from Greek ψεῦδος) is voluntary restriction or inhibition of motion because of pain, incoordination, orgasm, or other cause, and is not due to actual muscular paralysis. In an infant, it may be a symptom of congenital syphilis. Pseudoparalysis can be caused by extreme mental stresses, and is a common feature of mental disorders such as panic anxiety disorder.
A well-known example is the tetrodotoxin of fish species such as Takifugu rubripes, the famously lethal pufferfish of Japanese fugu. This toxin works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing the cells’ proper function. A non-lethal dose of this toxin results in temporary paralysis. This toxin is also present in many other species ranging from toads to nemerteans.
Paralysis can be seen in breeds of dogs that are chondrodysplastic. These dogs have short legs, and may also have short muzzles. Their intervertebral disc material can calcify and become more brittle. In such cases, the disc may rupture, with disc material ending up in the spinal canal, or rupturing more laterally to press on spinal nerves. A minor rupture may only result in paresis, but a major rupture can cause enough damage to cut off circulation. If no signs of pain can be elicited, surgery should be performed within 24 hours of the incident, to remove the disc material and relieve pressure on the spinal cord. After 24 hours, the chance of recovery declines rapidly, since with continued pressure, the spinal cord tissue deteriorates and dies.
Another type of paralysis is caused by a fibrocartilaginous embolism. This is a microscopic piece of disc material that breaks off and becomes lodged in a spinal artery. Nerves served by the artery will die when deprived of blood.
The German Shepherd Dog is especially prone to developing degenerative myelopathy. This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become gradually weaker in the hind legs as nerves die off. Eventually their hind legs become useless. They often also exhibit faecal and urinary incontinence. As the disease progresses, the paresis and paralysis gradually move forward. This disease also affects other large breeds of dogs. It is suspected to be an autoimmune problem.